Alcohol use problems range from occasional problem drinking to alcohol misuse to alcoholism. Alcoholism, also known as alcohol dependence, is a primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. It is often progressive and fatal.
The NIAAA defines risky drinking of "standard drinks," with one standard drink equal to about 12 ounces of typical American beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1.5 ounces of hard liquor. These figures are based on "typical" (mass market) forms of beer and wine; particularly for beer, many specialty beers may contain up to twice the amount of alcohol as a mass market beer does. For wine, the alcohol content is more constant, but wine coolers often contain less alcohol and some types of wine, such as zinfandels and port, may contain twice the average amount of alcohol. For men, 4 or more drinks a day or 14 or more a week within the last year is considered risky, while for women it is 3 or more a day or 7 or more a week.
Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT),
Full Blood Count (FBC)
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT)
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and Ethyl sulfate (EtS)
Phosphatidyl ethanol (PEth)