Test/Profile NameAnti NMO (Aquaporin 4) & MOG Antibody
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a central nervous system disorder that primarily affects the eye nerves (optic neuritis) and the spinal cord (myelitis). It occurs when your body's immune system reacts against its own cells in the central nervous system, mainly in the optic nerves and spinal cord, but sometimes in the brain. Neuromyelitis optica is often misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis (MS) or perceived as a type of MS, but NMO is a distinct condition. Approximately 80% of patients with NMO are seropositive for the autoantibody NMO-IgG (also known as the aquaporin-4 autoantibody - AQP4 [the astrocytic water channel]) In the remaining 20% of patients, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-IgG is detected in up to a third. The pathogenic target for the remaining patients remains unknown. Detection of MOG-IgG is diagnostic of central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelination, where the clinical phenotype (NMOSD, optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, ADEM) may be similar, but the immunopathology (astrocytopathy vs oligodendrogyopathy) and clinical outcome (worse vs better) is different.
Specimen Type and Minimal VolumeVariable Please confirm with the laboratory prior to testing.