Anti Neutrophils Cytoplasmic Antibody (c-ANCA)

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Anti Neutrophils Cytoplasmic Antibody (c-ANCA)

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Clinical Usefullness

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are autoantibodies produced by the immune system that mistakenly target and attack specific proteins within neutrophils (a type of white blood cell). Two of the most common ANCAs are the autoantibodies that target the proteins myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3 (PR3). These are called pANCAs (perinuclear) and cANCAs (cytoplasmic), respectively. ANCA may be present in several autoimmune disorders that cause inflammation, tissue damage, and organ failure as :

Systemic vasculitis, a group of disorders associated with damage and weakening of blood vessels. It can cause tissue and organ damage due to the narrowing and obstruction of blood vessels and the subsequent loss of blood supply. It can also produce areas of weakness in blood vessel walls, known as aneurysms, which have the potential to rupture. A few types of systemic vasculitis are closely associated with the production of ANCA: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis), Microscopic polyangiitis, Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg Strauss syndrome) & Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN).

cANCA/PR3 antibodies are most frequently seen in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis) and pANCA/ MPO antibodies are most often associated with microscopic polyangiitis. However, both may be seen in all three types with varying degrees of reactivity.

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Variable Please confirm with the laboratory prior to testing.

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